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Brain Anatomy Function and Symptoms – Chart

Brain Anatomy Function and Symptoms

The Cerebellum and The Brain Stem
Cerebellum: Function Associated Signs and Symptoms
Brain Anatomy Function - Cerebellum Coordination and control of voluntary movement.
  • Tremors.
  • Nystagmus (Involuntary movement of the eye).
  • Ataxia, lack of coordination.
Brain Stem: Function Associated Signs and Symptoms
MidbrainBrain Anatomy Function - Midbrain Nerve pathway of cerebral hemispheres.Auditory and Visual reflex centers.Cranial Nerves:

  • CN III – Oculomotor (Related to eye movement), [motor].
  • CN IV – Trochlear (Superior oblique muscle of the eye which rotates the eye down and out), [motor]
  • Weber’s: CN III palsy and ptosis (drooping) ipsalateral (same side of body).
  • Pupils:
    Size: Midposition to dilated.
    Reactivity: Sluggish to fixed.
  • LOC (Loss of consciousness): Varies
  • Movement: Abnormal extensor ( muscle that extends a part).
  • Respiratory: Hyperventilating.
  • CN (Cranial Nerve) Deficits: CN III, CN IV.
PonsBrain Anatomy Function - Pons Respiratory Center.Cranial Nerves:

  • CN V – Trigeminal (Skin of face, tongue, teeth; muscle of mastication), [motor and sensory].
  • CN VI – Abducens (Lateral rectus muscle of eye which rotates eye outward), [motor].
  • CN VII – Facial (Muscles of expression), [motor and sensory].
  • CN VIII – Acoustic (Internal auditory passage), [sensory].
  • Pupils:
    Size: Pinpoint
  • LOC:
    “Akinetic Mute”.
    “Locked In” Syndrome.
  • Movement:
    Abnormal extensor.
  • Respiratory:
    Apneustic (Abnormal respiration marked by sustained inhalation).
  • CN Deficits: CN VI, CN VII.
Medulla OblongataBrain Anatomy Function - Medulla Oblongata Crossing of motor tracts.Cardiac Center.Respiratory Center.Vasomotor (nerves having muscular control of the blood vessel walls) CenterCenters for cough, gag, swallow, and vomit.Cranial Nerves:

  • CN IX – Glossopharyneal (Muscles and mucous membranes of pharynx, the constricted openings from the mouth and the oral pharynx and the posterior third of tongue.), [mixed].
  • CN X – Vagus (Pharynx, larynx, heart, lungs, stomach), [mixed].
  • CN XI – Accessory (Rotation of the head and shoulder), [motor].
  • CN XII – Hypoglossal (Intrinsic muscles of the tongue), [motor].
  • Movement: Ipsilateral (same side) plegia (paralysis).
  • Pupils:
    Size: Dilated.
    Reactivity: Fixed.
  • LOC: Comatose.
  • Respiratory:
    Abnormal breathing patterns.
  • CN Palsies (Inability to control movement):
    Absent Cough.
Brain Injury Symptomatology