Microscopic Damage after Concussion
Microscopic damage after concussion to axons can be caused by:
- Cell Miscommunication,
- Neurotoxins and
- Inflammatory Effects.
Here is a quote explaining microscopic damage after concussion written by Graham, Gennarelli, Greensfield’s Neuropathology.
“The delayed consequences of primary injury have only recently begun to be understood. These are various events that have been triggered by the primary injury and include neurobiological processes involving cellular dysfunction such as free radical formation, receptor mediated mechanisms, calcium and inflammation mediated damage.”
Source:(Graham, Gennarelli, Greenfield’s Neuropathology, © 1996, Arnold, page 197.)
A series of electrical and chemical changes developing over a period of hours, result in changes to blood flow, the metabolism and the ionic balance in the brain.
Brain cells communicate with each other both electronically and chemically. Trauma can disrupt the electrical and chemical balance, with the result that brain cells set off the wrong signals, which can damage or destroy the cell. Without the correct and effected communication of the cells, traumatic brain injury will occur. This may or may not be permanent.
Trauma can also result in the release of chemicals which are toxic to brain cells.
What ability the brain cell has to protect itself from these toxins, may also be reduced by the effects the trauma had to the physical structure of the cell. Brain cells have protective coatings, much like the insulation on a wire or the paint on a car.
Other damage is related to the inflammation of the cell, as chemicals accumulate within the cell.
Such swelling can cause an increase in pressure at the cellular level, which results in secondary brain damage.